based on autors README-python

This package uses Bayesian inference to generate posterior distributions of FRET signals from noisy measured FRET data.


bayesian-efret-py is a standalone package in Python 3. The code has been tested on Python 3.9.0. The following packages and the versions tested on the code are needed, all available on PIP:

  1. NumPy 1.20.2
  2. SciPy 1.6.2
  3. Autograd 1.3 needed for automatic differentiation of the cost function
  4. matplotlib 3.3.4
  5. pathos 0.2.8 needed for multicore processing (even if not used; install using pip)
  6. zeus-mcmc 2.3.0 needed for MCMC sampling (optional)

Main run script

In the scripts/ folder of the repository, copy sample_run_script.py to a .py file of any name (this will not be tracked by git). The run file contains the following simple code:

import sys
from load_save import load_data
from main import analyze_FRET_data

DATA_DIR = r'../example'
EXP_DIR = r'../example/gauss_noise/sinusoids'

def run():

    data = load_data(DATA_DIR, 'data_sinusoids')
    a = analyze_FRET_data(data, EXP_DIR)

if __name__ == '__main__':

For a given estimation, the general structure will remain as such. In particular, for the multiprocessing aspects of the code to function properly, the script guard if __name == '__main':run() must be present at the end of the script, and all code to be executed must be in the function run() .

For most estimations, the user will only need to change DATA_DIR to the directory where the measured input data (see Input data section below) is stored and EXP_DIR to the directory where the estimation specifications and models (see Analysis parameters and Model functions sections below) and output data is to be stored.

Input data

Input (measured) data should be a dictionary saved in .pkl format. The dictionary must have the following keys:

  1. 'IDD': representing the quantity IDD, which is the time series of the fluorescence intensity from donor emission due to donor excitation. This quantity is an array of shape either (NT,DD) if there is 1 measured dataset, or (Ndata, NT,DD) if there are multiple datasets, where NT,DD is the number of measured timepoints and Ndata is the number of datasets.
  2. 'IDA': representing the quantity IDA, which is the time series of the fluorescence intensity from acceptor emission due to donor excitation. This quantity is an also array of shape either (NT,DD) or (Ndata, NT,DD).
  3. 'IAA': representing the quantity IAA, which is the time series of the fluorescence intensity from acceptor emission due to acceptor excitation. This quantity is an array of shape either (NT,AA) or (Ndata, NT,AA). Note that NT,AA does is not necessarily the same as NT,DD.

  4. 'tDD': the times at which IDD and NDA are measured; a vector of length NT,DD.

  5. 'tAA': the times at which IAA is measured; a vector of length NT,AA.
  6. 'IDD_noise_sd': The standard deviation of the measurement noise of IDD at each timepoint; a vector of length NT,DD.
  7. 'IDA_noise_sd': The standard deviation of the measurement noise of IDA at each timepoint; a vector of length NT,DD.
  8. 'IAA_noise_sd': The standard deviation of the measurement noise of IAA at each timepoint; a vector of length NT,AA.
  9. 'crstlk', a dictionary which contains keys 'a' and 'd', whose values (each floats) represent cross-excitation and bleedthrough, respectively, as well as an 'G', representing the optical parameter.

The user can also provide an optional 'E' key which is an array of the same shape as 'IDD', and contains the ground-truth FRET index, to be compared against the estimated FRET index.

Analysis parameters

These are the hyperparameters of the inference procedure, and are all defined within the anl_params class in the define_analysis_params.py module. The hyperparameters of the inference are all set as attributes of the anl_params class, for example:

class anl_params():

    def __init__(a):

        a.process_noise = 'Gaussian'
        a.state_est_all_cores = True

    if a.process_noise == 'Non-Gaussian':
        a.Q_tilde_prior_modes = [100, 1]
        a.Q_tilde_prior_FC = [30, 10]
        a.state_est_method = 'integrate'
        a.chi_interval_width = 8
        a.chi_num_of_subintervals = 400
        a.sigma_chi_prior_FC = 30
        a.sigma_chi_prior_mode = 100

    # list further attributes below...

This module is placed in the EXP_DIR folder defined above in the main run script. See the example in the example/gauss_noise/steps directory for the general structure.

The full list of attributes that one can set are:

  1. process_noise: string, setting the statistics of the process noise; 'Gaussian' or 'Non-Gaussian'. In general, for situations in which the FRET index has small, nearly continuous changes in time, Gaussian noise should be chosen.

If Gaussian process noise is used, the process noise is parameterized only by the standard deviation SD. This SD is unknown, and is inferred during the estimation procedure using Bayesian inference with a prior, which is assumed lognormal. The prior then has its own hyperparameters -- the mode and fold change of the lognormal -- which must be set here. Here, sigma_chi_prior_mode is a float setting the mode and sigma_chi_prior_FC is a positive float setting fold change (or geometric standard deviation, essentially the 'spread' in log space) of the lognormal prior of the SD.

python a.sigma_chi_prior_FC = 30 a.sigma_chi_prior_mode = 100

If non-Gaussian process noise is used, then the following procedures should be taken:

A. The distribution of the noise, which we call Q_tilde, is defined as a subclass in the model class (see the Model functions section for how to do this).

B. The parameters of Q_tilde must themselves be estimated, and each is assumed lognormal. For example, if Q_tilde is a mean-zero generalized Student's t-distribution, then it is parameterized by hyperparameters sigma and nu. We must define the lognormals for each of these, by their mode and fold-change:

python a.Q_tilde_prior_modes = [100, 1] a.Q_tilde_prior_FC = [30, 10]

Thus, sigma is chosen from a lognormal with mode 100 and fold-change 30, while nu is chosen from a lognormal with mode 1 and fold change 10. The ordering of sigma and nu is defined where Q_tilde is defined in Model functions (see below).

C. Non-gaussian process noise requires either using a particle filter (sequential Monte Carlo) or direct integration for the Bayesian integrals, specifically, integrating over the variable chi. The preferred method is set withstate_est_method, which can be set to 'SMC' or 'integrate'. If the evaluation method is 'integrate', then one must set:

python a.state_est_method = 'integrate' a.chi_interval_width = 8 a.chi_num_of_subintervals = 400

This chooses an integration range whose width is 8x the width of 95% of the chi values, and which is partitioned into 400 intervals to approximate the Reimann integral. Typically, 8 is a conservative width and one can choose a smaller multiplier (say 2 or 4) without much loss of precision. If the evaluation method is 'SMC', one must set the number of particles for the particle filter using num_SMC_samples -- typically 300 is fine.

  1. state_est_all_cores: boolean. If True, use all available CPU cores in the state estimation, otherwise only run on a single core.

  2. do_MCMC: boolean. If True, use MCMC sampling to get the posterior distributions of the dynamical states; otherwise they are estimated using the Laplace approximation. If True, set the following attributes:

A. MCMC_all_cores: boolean. If True, use all available CPU cores.

B. MCMC_d_init: float, setting the size of the ball, in logspace, over which the workers are initialized. ~0.1 seems appropriate.

C. MCMC_num_workers: integer. Number of parallel walkers.

D. MCMC_num_samples: integer. Number of samples per walker.

E. MCMC_burnin : integer. Burn-in length.

  1. curve_fit_options: dictionary, which sets the parameters of the optimization for the initial curve fitting to get an initial estimate on the parameters. Its keys are 'ftol', 'maxfun', and 'maxiter', which are the tolerate, maximum number of function evaluations, and maximum number of iterations for the optimization. Reasonable values are <1e-6, >1e4, and >1e3, respectively.

  2. P0_x1: float, setting the variance of the Gaussian prior on the constant dynamical state. It should be very small ~1e-10.

  3. m0_chi and P0_chi are the mean and variance of the Gaussian prior on the chi dynamical state. One should generally chose a rather uniformed prior, suggested values are m0_chi = 0 and P0_chi = 1e6.

Model functions

This module contains the model class used to define the functions pertaining to the bleaching curve. There is a good deal of flexibility here in that these functions can contain any functional forms and an arbitrary number of unknown parameters. There are 4 subclasses in model. The example in example/gauss_noise_estimated_G should be followed closely, in the following manner:

  1. subclass f_D() defines the bleaching curve for the donor channel.

``` class f_D(): def init(self):

       self.p_name = ['tau_D1', 'tau_D2', 'delta_D']
       self.p_init = [100, 100, 0.5]
       self.p_lo_bnd = [0, 0, 0]
       self.p_hi_bnd = [np.inf, np.inf, 1]

       def func(self, t, params):

           return params[2]*np.exp(-t/params[0]) + (1 - params[2])*np.exp(-t/params[1])


This curve is parameterized by *p* parameters -- each of the lists in the constructor should be *p*-element lists (in the example, *p* = 3). The `p_init` is the values of the initial guesses for these, while `p_lo_bnd` and `p_hi_bnd` are the hard bounds for each parameter. This function should have 1 method, `func(self, t, params)`, which returns the bleaching function as a function of the time *t* and the parameters *params*, which is the *p*-element list as in the constructor. Obviously, the ordering of the 4 lists defined in `__init__` must be consistent.
  1. subclass f_A() is analogous for the bleaching curve for the acceptor channel.

  2. subclass Q_tilde() defines the statistics of the process noise, if the process noise is non-Gaussian (see Analysis parameters above).

``` class Q_tilde():

def __init__(self):
    self.p_name = ['sigma_chi', 'nu']

def _f(self, x):
    val = 1/self.sd*gamma(self.nu/2 + 0.5)/np.sqrt(np.pi*self.nu)\
          /gamma(self.nu/2)*(1 + (x/self.sd)**2/self.nu)\
          **(-self.nu/2 - 0.5)
    return val

def sample(self, params, size=1):
    sd, nu = params
    return t.rvs(df=nu, scale=sd, size=size)

def pdf(self, params):
    self.sd, self.nu = params
    return self._f


The general structure of this class can be inferred from the example. Here, there are two hyperparameters defining the Q_tilde distribution (in this case, the student's t-distribution), sigma_chi and nu. The class has 2 methods: pdf and sample. The method pdf(self, params) returns the pdf of the process noise with hyperparameters set to params. Thus, pdf(self, params) returns a function defining the pdf of the data. In the example, we used the auxiliary method _f(self, x) to define this pdf. The method sample(self, params, size=1) returns N = size independence samples from the process noise pdf (in the example, we use a built-in function).

  1. subclass prior_dict(object). The example should be closely followed, and only a few portions should be modified. This object defines the pdfs for the priors on all p unknown parameters. The class has one method, func(self, anl_params), which returns a dictionary with p entries.

``` class prior_dict(object): def func(self, anl_params):

       pdfs_dict = dict()

       # DT, AT
       pdfs_dict['DT'] = lognorm_pdf(sigma=np.log(2)).pdf
       pdfs_dict['AT'] = lognorm_pdf(sigma=np.log(1.1)).pdf

       # Add further pdfs in their respective keys below ...


pdfs_dict is a dictionary, with one key for each parameter being estimated. The necessary keys are: DT, AT, all of the parameters of f_D and f_A (the entries of f_D.p_name and f_A.p_name), and either

​ i) sigma_chi (if model noise is Gaussian), or

​ ii) the entries ofQ_tilde.p_name if the noise is non-Gaussian.

The value of each entry of pdfs_dict is a single-argument function returning the pdf whose mode is the argument. In the first part of the estimation, the mode for all of these priors will be determined by simple curve fitting. This will then define the prior distribution once and for all (all hyperparameters are now fixed). There are useful helper functions in src/utils.py for common distributions -- normal, lognormal, and standard uniform.